Friday, September 16, 2011

The Nobel Prize In Physiology Or Medicine In 1937, Albert Szent-Györgyi

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Albert von Szent-Györgyi was born in Budapest September 16, 1893, son of Nicolaus von Szent-Gyorgyi, the owner of a large landed, and Josefine, whose father, Joseph Lenhossék, and brother Michael are both professors of anatomy at the ' University of Budapest. He enrolled in 1911 and came with his uncle in the laboratory, where he studied until the World War broke out, when he was in motion. He served in the Italian and Russian fronts, a silver medal for valor, and he was discharged in 1917 after the wounded in action. He graduated as an engineer in Budapest and worked as a pharmacologist in a row, G. Mansfeld in Bratislava with Armin von Tschermak in Prague, where he studied electrophysiology, and Michele L. in Berlin, before going to Hamburg, a two-year course in physical chemistry at the Institute of Tropical Hygiene.

In 1920 he became assistant at the Institute of Leiden Pharmocology and from 1922 to 1926 he worked with HJ Burger at the Institute of Physiology, Groningen, The Netherlands. In 1927 he moved to Cambridge as a Rockefeller Fellow, working under FG Hopkins, and spent a year at the Mayo Foundation, Rochester, Minnesota, before returning to Cambridge. In 1930, he became professor of medical chemistry at the University of Szeged and in 1935 also took the Chair in Organic Chemistry. At the end of World War II, took the chair of medical chemistry in Budapest and in 1947 he left Hungary and settled in the United States, where he is Director of Research, Muscle Research Institute, Woods Hole, Massachusetts.

Szent-Gyorgyi in Groningen in the early studies concerned the chemical breathing. He described the interdependence of oxygen and hydrogen activation, and made his first observations dehydrases partnerships and systems of plant polyphenol oxidase. He also showed the existence of a material to reduce plant and animal tissue. Cambridge and during his early stay in the United States, has further isolated from the kidneys to reduce this substance, which is now known as ascorbic acid. Returning to Cambridge in 1929, then described the pharmacological activity of nucleotides with Drury.

On his return to Hungary, said the fight against scurvy and ascorbic acid found pepper (Capsicum annuum) has been a rich source of vitamin C. He continued his studies of the biological oxidation led to the recognition of the catalytic role of C4 dicarboxylic acids, the discovery of "cytoflav" (flavin) and the recognition of biological activity and the likely nature of flavanone vitamin (vitamin P) .

In 1938 he began working on research and soon discovered the muscle proteins actin and myosin and their complex. This has led to an increase in a key reaction in muscle contraction, which formed the basis of muscle research in the following decades. Preservation of biological material of glycerine, which has been widely applied in agricultural use, including the preservation of semen, led to his recent work. He also developed the use of rabbit psoas muscle experimental data, published his theory of Energetic problems and studied the regulation of growth and cell membrane potential, hormonal activity, and thyme.

Szent-Györgyi, a member of numerous scientific societies, is a former president of the Academy of Sciences, Budapest, and vice-president of the National Academy of Budapest. He was a visiting professor at Harvard University in 1936 and Franchi Professor at the University of Liege, 1938. Cameron received the Award (Edinburgh) in 1946 and the Lasker Award in 1954. His numerous publications include oxidation, fermentation, vitamins, health and disease (1939) Muscle contraction (1947), the nature of life (1947) muscle contraction in the body and the heart (1953) and bioenergetics (1957 ).

Szent-Gyorgyi Demeny married Cornelia, the daughter of the Hungarian Postmaster General, 1917. In 1930 he was active in the anti-Nazi during the Second World War, became a Swedish citizen - who has received extensive assistance to the Swedish Embassy in Budapest. In 1941 he married Martha Borbiro, a colleague at the Woods Hole have a daughter.

He is interested in sports of all kinds, his favorites are sailing and mountaineering.

From Nobel Lectures, Physiology or Medicine 1922-1941, Elsevier Publishing Company, Amsterdam, 1965


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