Katherine Cole: The Hubble Space Telescope continues to make valuable discoveries, after more than twenty years in orbit around the Earth. Hubble has recently fourth moon orbiting Pluto. Astronomers temporarily called P4. The moon is the smallest of discoveries from around the icy dwarf planet.
NASA, ESA, and M. Showalter (SETI Institute)
New Moon Pluto, P4
Astronomers estimate that the moon is 13 to 34 km in diameter. They were first seen in a Hubble photo taken June 28
U.S. space agency has launched the Hubble Space Telescope in 1990. To get to this day it took years of work. Ed Weiler, director of the Space Agency astronomer.
Ed Weiler, "The Hubble when it was launched, representing an increase of the capacity of other ground-based telescopes by a factor of ten. The last time in human history of astronomy that got us into a factor of ten in a single step, when Galileo was arrested with his eyes and put the first telescope to the eye. "
Jim Tedder: Nancy Grace Roman was the first head of the agency's space astronomy. She led efforts that led to the creation of the Hubble Space Telescope.
Nancy Grace ROMAN: .. "Astronomers had failed to obtain the observations of the atmosphere over a long time looking through the atmosphere is a bit like looking through a stained glass piece of old glass has flaws in it, so that the image is fuzzy on that. "
The Hubble telescope orbits about 550 miles above Earth. Ms. Roman still remember the first images it captures.
Nancy Grace ROMAN: "I think for me the image that was most striking was the center of a globular cluster could be seen all the stars individually and see color, and it was just an amazing sight.."
The Hubble Space Telescope has expanded our knowledge of the universe. He helped the scientists estimate that the universe began about fourteen billion years ago. Ed Weiler, said the Hubble also confirmed the existence of a black hole. Extremely dense masses are estimated to be at the center of many galaxies. Its gravitational pull is so strong that absorb light.
The Hubble Space Telescope received a millionth of scientific observations in July. Space Agency to build a new space telescope and look deeper into the beginning of the universe.
Katherine Cole: In a large map of the United States, it almost seems a mistake. But if you look closely you will see a series of small islands extending into the Atlantic Ocean. The island chain is about 320 km long and extends mainly north to south.
This area is known as the Outer Banks of North Carolina. It is a land of "firsts." English settlers first landed in the vicinity of Roanoke Island, in the purpose fifteen hundred. This is where Virginia Dare was born. It was the first English child born in North America.
Three hundred years later, Wilbur and Orville Wright flew the first airplane with a motor vehicle in a place called Kill Devil Hills. And many, many times the Outer Banks is the first place, that large oceanic storms ... hurricanes ... have begun to destroy.
Family sitting in front of their flooded home to the storm wave is the Outer Banks is the Kitty Hawk, North Carolina last month
Jim Tedder: The Outer Banks are known as barrier islands. Not that long, thin strip of sand that separates the continent. To the right of the Outer Banks is the Atlantic Ocean. On the left are the rings of large water courses. In some places, land is less than a mile wide, with water on both sides.
Because the Outer Banks to keep as far into the sea, is a place where wind storms occur frequently. Last month Hurricane Irene moved across the Caribbean Sea and turned north. The next country hit near Cape Lookout was at the southern end of the Outer Banks. Over the next few days, the storm killed people, destroyed homes and businesses and flooded large parts of North America.
Katherine Cole: Many scientists say that if Irene had not hit the Outer Banks, first, the damage could have been worse areas of the north. Outer Banks have been severely damaged. The main road near Cape Hatteras have been wiped out at least two points, so many people are unable to travel.
Hurricanes still do some damage on the Outer Banks. But this long string of fine sand and also helps to have a lot of destructive energy of the storm. When a hurricane hits land, begins to lose strength as it no longer has the warm, moist air that needs it.
Jim Tedder: Atlantic hurricanes are often formed on the high seas. Many start out as small storms off the west coast of Africa. Since moving over the water, moving in a circle. They receive the energy they spend in hot water at a temperature of at least 26 degrees Celsius.
The researchers say that a hurricane is like an engine that uses warm, moist air to fuel. Some hurricanes run out of hot water and breaks into the sea. Others continue to circle, strong, and winds caused nearly two hundred miles an hour when they hit the ground.
Katherine Cole: severe storms have always been part of the history of the Outer Banks. In 1586, the first English settlers in America were afraid of a terrible storm which lasted four days. Its leader, Sir Francis Drake, was that the hurricane destroyed several of their ships. In 1846, a huge storm washed thoroughly for land and streams are ... large openings between the sea and noise.
Hurricanes have been known to hit the Outer Banks from May to December. But most of them arrive in August, September and October. There is an old adage about Outer Banks. "If you do not like the weather, wait ten minutes."
News Science this week was written by Jim Tedder and June Simms, who was also our producer. I'm Katherine Cole.
Jim Tedder: And I'm Jim Tedder. Listen again next week for more news special science, English is the Voice of America.